NO. (1)
Title: Application of nanomedicine for crossing the blood-brain barrier: Theranostic opportunities in multiple sclerosis

Authors: Ghalamfarsa, G (Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem); Hojjat-Farsangi, M (Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad); Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, M (Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa); Anvari, E (Anvari, Enayat); Farhadi, S (Farhadi, Shohreh); Yousefi, M (Yousefi, Mehdi); Jadidi-Niaragh, F (Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurodegenerative disease characterized with immunopathobiological events, including lymphocytic infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS), microglia activation, demyelination and axonal degeneration. Although several neuroprotective drugs have been designed for the treatment of MS, complete remission is yet matter of debate. Therefore, development of novel therapeutic approaches for MS is of a high priority in immunological research. Nanomedicine is a recently developed novel medical field, which is applicable in both diagnosis and treatment of several cancers and autoimmune diseases. Although there is a marked progress in neuroimaging through using nanoparticles, little is known regarding the therapeutic potential of nanomedicine in neurological disorders, particularly MS. Moreover, the majority of data is limited to the MS related animal models. In this review, we will discuss about the brain targeting potential of different nanoparticles as well as the role of nanomedicine in the diagnosis and treatment of MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

NO. (2)
Title: Detection of biofilm related genes, classical enterotoxin genes and agr typing among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine with subclinical mastitis in southwest of Iran

Authors: Khoramrooz, SS (Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad); Mansouri, F (Mansouri, Fariba); Marashifard, M (Marashifard, Masoud); Hosseini, SAAM (Hosseini, Seyed Ali Asghar Malek); Chenarestane-Olia, FA (Chenarestane-Olia, Fereshteh Akbarian); Ganavehei, B (Ganavehei, Banafsheh); Gharibpour, F (Gharibpour, Farzaneh); Shahbazi, A (Shahbazi, Ardavan); Mirzaii, M (Mirzaii, Mehdi); Darban-Sarokhalil, D (Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood)

Staphylococcus aureus by producing biofilm and facilitating chronic infection is a common cause of mastitis in cows and thereby can cause food poisoning by production of enterotoxins in milk. The agr typing method is an important tool for epidemiological investigation about S. aureus. The aims of the present study were to detect biofilm related genes, 5 classical enterotoxin genes and the agr types among S. aureus isolates. The ability of S. aureus isolates to produce biofilm was evaluated by modified CRA plate. Six biofilm related adhesion genes (icaD, icaA, fnbA, bap, clfA and cna), five classical enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed and see) and tst-1 gene were detected by PCR methods. Multiplex-PCR was used to determination of the agr groups. 55 out of 80(68.8%) S. aureus isolates were biofilm producer. The icaD gene was detected in 70 (87.5%) of isolates. The prevalence rates of fnbA, icaA, clfA, cna and bap were 72.5, 56.25, 50, 22.5, and 5% respectively. The agr group I and III were detected in 57.5% 25% of studied isolates. The sea, sed and tst-1 genes were found in 10%, 7.5% and 1.25% of isolates respectively. The majority of S. aureus were able to produce biofilm. Significant associations were observed between presence of the icaD, icaA, fnbA, clfA and the cna genes as well as biofilm formation. The present study revealed that isolates with the agr type III are more potent for biofilm production. Our data supported a possible link between the agr types and certain SE genes.

NO. (3)
Title: Preconcentration of valsartan by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop and its determination in urine sample: Central composite design

Authors: Pebdani, AA (Pebdani, Arezou Amiri); Shabani, AMH (Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji); Dadfarnia, S (Dadfarnia, Shayesteh); Talebianpoor, MS (Talebianpoor, Mohammad Sharif); Khodadoust, S (Khodadoust, Saeid)

In this work, a fast, easy, and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was developed for the separation/preconcentration and determination of the drug valsartan. Experimental design was applied for the optimization of the effective variables (such as volume of extracting and dispersing solvents, ionic strength, and pH) on the extraction efficiency of valsartan from urine samples. The optimized values were 250.0 mu L ethanol, 65.0 mu L 1-dodecanol, 4.0% w/v NaCl, pH 3.8, 1.0 min extraction time, and 4.0 min centrifugation at 4000 rpm min(-1). The linear response (r(2) = 0.997) was obtained in the range of 0.013-10.0 mu g mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 4.0 ng mL(-1) and relative standard deviations of less than 5.0 % (n = 6). 

NO. (4)
Title: Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

Authors: Sadeghi, H (Sadeghi, Heibatollah); Hosseinzadeh, S (Hosseinzadeh, Saleh); Touri, MA (Touri, Mehdi Akbartabar); Ghavamzadeh, M (Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi); Barmak, MJ (Barmak, Mehrzad Jafari); Sayahi, M (Sayahi, Moslem); Sadeghi, H (Sadeghi, Hossein)


Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4), R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i. p.) were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining) of liver section.
Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCl4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p<0.01). The extract also increased the serum levels of ALB and TP compared to CCl4 group (p<0.01) at the indicated dose Histopathological studies supported the biochemical finding.
Conclusion: Our finding indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that these effects may be produced through reducing oxidative stress.

NO. (5)
Title: Application of an optimized modified stir bar with ZnS nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon for preconcentration of carbofuran and propoxur insecticides in water samples and their HPLC determination

Authors: Pebdani, AA (Pebdani, Arezou Amiri); Khodadoust, S (Khodadoust, Saeid); Toori, MA (Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar); Zarezade, V (Zarezade, Vahid); Talebianpoor, MS (Talebianpoor, Mohammad Sharif)

In this study, the stir bar was coated with ZnS-NPs loaded on activated carbon (AC) (ZnS-AC) as well as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([EMIM][PF6]) ionic liquid (IL) using a sol gel technique which was used for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of carbofuran and propoxur. The extracted analytes were then quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with an ultra violet detector. The best extraction performance for carbofuran and propoxur was obtained through the optimization of the factors affecting SBSE including the pH of the sample solution, ionic strength, extraction time, volume of desorption solvent, desorption time, and stirring speed. The fractional factorial design (FFD) was used to find the most important factors, which were then optimized by the central composite design (CCD) and the desirability function (DF). Under the optimal experimental conditions, the proposed method has linear ranges over 0.002-30 mu g mL(-1) with detection limits of 0.0003-0.0005 mu g mL(-1) and good RSDs (and n = 6) of 3.3-4.5% with the enrichment factors (EFs) in the range of 75.6-81.6-fold for carbofuran and propoxur. The developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of two N-methylcarbamate in environmental water samples such as tap water, river water, and mineral water.

 NO. (6)
Title: Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

Authors: Parhizkar, S (Parhizkar, Saadat); Latiff, LA (Latiff, Latiffah Abdul); Parsa, A (Parsa, Ali)

Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models.
Materials and Methods: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control), distilled water or olive oil (negative control), treatment groups (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment), (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment) and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment).
Results: The results demonstrated that N. sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p< 0.05) in different experiments.
Conclusion: The finding indicated the probable beneficial role for N. sativa in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and possibility of using N. sativa as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post menopause in human.

NO. (7)
Title: Preconcentration and determination of chlordiazepoxide and diazepam drugs using dispersive nanomaterial-ultrasound assisted microextraction method followed by high performance liquid chromatography

Authors: Pebdani, AA (Pebdani, A. Amiri); Khodadoust, S (Khodadoust, S.); Talebianpoor, MS (Talebianpoor, M. S.); Zargar, HR (Zargar, H. R.); Zarezade, V (Zarezade, V.)

Benzodiazepines (BDs) are used widely in clinical practice, due to their multiple pharmacological functions. In this study a dispersive nanomaterial-ultrasound assisted- microextraction (DNUM) method followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the preconcentration and determination of chlordiazepoxide and diazepam drugs from urine and plasma samples. Various parameters such as amount of adsorbent (mg: ZnS-AC), pH and ionic strength of sample solution, vortex and ultrasonic time (min), and desorption volume (mL) were investigated by fractional factorial design (FFD) and central composite design (CCD). Regression models and desirability functions (DF) were applied to find the best experimental conditions for providing the maximum extraction recovery (ER). Under the optimal conditions a linear calibration curve were obtained in the range of 0.005-10 mu g mL(-1) and 0.006-10 mu g mL(-1) for chlordiazepoxide and diazepam, respectively. To demonstrate the analytical performance, figures of merits of the proposed method in urine and plasma spiked with chlordiazepoxide and diazepam were investigated. The limits of detection of chlordiazepoxide and diazepam in urine and plasma were ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0015 mu g mL(-1), respectively.

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