NO. (1)
Title: Genetic similarity between adenoid tissue and middle ear fluid isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis from Iranian children with otitis media with effusion 

Authors: Emaneini, M (Emaneini, Mohammad); Gharibpour, F (Gharibpour, Farzaneh); Khoramrooz, SS (Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad); Mirsalehian, A (Mirsalehian, Akbar); Jabalameli, F (Jabalameli, Fereshteh); Darban-Sarokhalil, D (Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood); Mirzaii, M (Mirzaii, Mehdi); Sharifi, A (Sharifi, Asghar); Taherikalani, M (Taherikalani, Morovat)

Background: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common disease among children, in the pathogenesis of which bacterial infections play a critical role. It was suggested that adenoid tissue could serve as a reservoir for bacterial infection, the eustachian tubes being the migration routes of bacteria into the middle ear cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic similarity between isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, obtained from adenoid tissue and middle ear fluid.
Methods: A total of 60 specimens of middle ear fluids (MEFs) and 45 specimens of adenoid tissue were obtained from 45 children with OME. All the samples were inoculated on culture media for bacterial isolation and identification. The genetic similarity between bacterial isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Results: The same bacterial species were simultaneously isolated from adenoid tissue and MEFs of 14 patients, among which, 6 pairs of M. catarrhalis, 5 pairs of S. pneumoniae and 3 pairs of H. influenzae were identified.
Conclusions: Based on the genetic similarities between isolate pairs, found by PFGE analysis, this study suggested that M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae colonize the adenoid tissue, then migrate to the middle ear cavity and, hence, contribute to the total pathogenesis of OME. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

NO. (2)
Title: Determination of trace elements in soil, leaves and fruits of Quercus brantii grown in southwestern Iran by atomic spectroscopy

Authors: Mohammadzadeh, A (Mohammadzadeh, A.); Samadi-Maybodi, A (Samadi-Maybodi, A.); Khodadoust, S (Khodadoust, S.)

Quercus brantii acorn is rich of some useful mineral elements such as K, Fe and Zn. The content of these mineral elements in Quercus are dependent on their region and environmental conditions. Q brantii grown naturally in different regions of Iran especially in Kohgiloye va Boyer Ahmad province (southwestern of Iran). In this study total concentration of Fe, Zn and K elements were determined using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy in fruits, leaves of Q. brantii and also in the soils where this plant was grown. Statistical evaluation (ANOVA test) was employed for all measurements. Results confirmed that the concentration of elements in fruit and leave depended on area which the plant is growth. The transport factor of elements was also considered. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

NO. (3)
Title: The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with high-level mupirocin resistance from patients and personnel in a burn center

Authors: Abbasi-Montazeri, E (Abbasi-Montazeri, Effat); Khosravi, AD (Khosravi, Azar Dokht); Feizabadi, MM (Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi); Goodarzi, H (Goodarzi, Hamed); Khoramrooz, SS (Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad); Mirzaii, M (Mirzaii, Mehdi); Kalantar, E (Kalantar, Enayatollah); Darban-Sarokhalil, D (Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood)

The rate of the MRSA strains, particularly at burn centers, is increasing worldwide. Detection of mupirocin resistance MRSA strains in the burn centers particularly from personnel will help to control these strains. For this purpose, a total of 116 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the patients (burns) and personnel (nostrils) in Ahvaz Taleghani hospital (Iran) were investigated. The methicillin and mupirocin resistant isolates were detected by multiplex amplification of the mecA and ileS-2 genes. The mecA was found among 80% of isolates. The rates of mupirocin resistant strains among personnel and patients were 70% and 6%, respectively. The carriage rates of the S. aureus, MRSA and MRSA with high-level mupirocin resistance in the personnel were 40%, 34% and 28%, respectively. In conclusions, the high prevalence of MRSA strains in the patients showed the potential outbreak of the MRSA in the burn center and highlighted the need of antibiotic susceptibility monitoring of MRSA. Moreover being personnel as a main reservoir in terms of MRSA strains with high-level mupirocin resistance emphasizes the screening of the personnel in terms of the MRSA in the healthcare system especially in the burn center. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

NO. (4)
Title: Further studies on anti-inflammatory activity of maprotiline in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat

Authors: Sadeghi, H (Sadeghi, Hossein); Hajhashemi, V (Hajhashemi, Valiolla); Minaiyan, M (Minaiyan, Mohsen) Movahedian, A (Movahedian, Ahmad); Talebi, A (Talebi, Ardeshir)

Antidepressant drugs are commonly used for treatment of different medical disorders besides of psychiatric diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that antidepressants exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro conditions, but the mechanisms of this property are not clear very well. In our earlier work, we demonstrated that i.c.v. and i.p. injection of maprotiline, as an antidepressant decreased paw edema at the fourth hour after subplantar injection of carrageenan. Therefore, this work was undertaken to investigate anti-inflammatory effects of maprotiline in more details. Our results verified that i.p. (25 and 50 mg/kg) and i.c.v. (100 mu g/rat) application of maprotiline significantly reduced paw edema at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h intervals after carrageenan challenge. Pathological examinations and MPO activity also showed that both i.p. and i.c.v. maprotiline considerably inhibited infiltration of PMN leucocytes into the inflamed paws. Additionally, i.p. and i.c.v. maprotiline at all applied doses noticeably declined levels of IL-1 beta into the site of inflammation, while only i.p. maprotiline at a dose of 50 mg/kg significantly decreased TNF-alpha levels in the carrageenan-injected paws.
These results confirmed anti-edematogenic activity of i.p. and i.c.v. maprotiline in the carrageenan induced paw edema model and showed that these properties of maprotiline might be mediated through inhibition of PMN infiltration and release of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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